The Indian agricultural sector has widely developed and produced more with the increase in technologies. The late 20th century and the early 21st century have been significant for agriculture growth in India, irrespective of some occasional advancement for sporadic crops and regions. As a result of such problems, the agriculture sector has grown a little over moderate. With the onset of the agricultural reforms in 1991, the overall growth in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) was little around 3 percent per annum.
After the successful implementation of agricultural reforms, the Indian agriculture was enhanced and widely grown, making India a regional as well as a global player especially with the mass cultivation of grains and rice. The reform changed the historic norms that India followed for quite some time and questioned the status-quo of the agricultural sector.
The Green revolution started in the early 1960s helped India in improving food grain productions and introduced pesticides, high-yielding varieties of seeds, and chemical fertilizers.
Following this, the great White Revolution was initiated in the late 1970s, often known as “Operation Flood”, which made India surpass U.S in terms of milk production. Next in line was oilseed sector, with the introduction of “Yellow Revolution”, another effort to help India self-sufficient in production. However, this revolution did not help India achieve much growth as it was intended to. This was mainly due to increased reduction in high tariffs on edible oil, which resulted in increasing imports. India started importing more than half of its edible oil in the year 2007-08.
There was still another sector that highly flourished during this time – a cotton sector with the introduction of BT technology. As a result, this sector marked an outstanding growth in production, enabling massive growth in exports. India traded more than eight million bales in the year 2007-08, which is still considered to be highest in the history.
Based on the figures recorded by Food and Agriculture Organization, India is the largest producer of many fresh vegetables and fruits, major spices, milk, jute, millets and castor seeds. India also feeds a large sum of the population with their staple food, that is rice and wheat, and is also the largest producer of the same.
Technology has played a crucial role in making India agriculture-rich and producing more crops. It has its root in both domestic and international markets. However, if the technology is made more advanced and with enhanced marketing, the agriculture sector would exploit all the markets with its utmost potential.
Technology plays an important role in marketing and it is crucial for the agricultural industry at all stages – primary (production), secondary (processing and cultivation), and tertiary (packaging and marketing). More focus should be on investments for improving and managing the complete supply chain.
More startups are being developed to rescue and improve the agriculture sector with the use of advanced technologies. Similarly, there are numerous farming technology companies, which cater to improving soil fertility for greater agricultural production. There are many other important companies focusing on weather monitoring and usage of high-quality farm equipment.
With the introduction of E-commerce for fresh foods and dairy products, it is rapidly leaving its trail on the internet with 34.8 % of people more likely to be involved. The agro-sector of India is on the path of self-sustainability in the near future.